Archive for the 'Capital III. Part 3' Category

Capital III. Chapter 15: Development of the Law’s Internal Contradictions

parts 1 and 2 (3 & 4 to follow)

Throughout this chapter we run up against the various manifestations of the limitations and barriers to the accumulation of capital and the ways in which, as capital overcomes the barriers it sets itself, the internal contradictions become more acute. The relations of production and distribution limit the production of wealth.

I General Considerations

The fall in the rate of profit and the acceleration of accumulation both express the increase in the productivity of social labour, and result from the formations of higher compositions of capital, a higher proportion of constant capital to variable capital, which as productivity grows manifests as a relative, or even absolute, reduction in the amount of variable to constant capital: a smaller (relatively or absolutely) amount of variable capital (amount of workers) is able to set in motion a larger total capital as productivity grows. This same process accelerates the concentration and centralization of capital, as smaller capitals are ‘dispossessed’.

Continue reading ‘Capital III. Chapter 15: Development of the Law’s Internal Contradictions’

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Capital III. Chapter 14: Counteracting factors

Marx stresses that the phenomena he describes here are tendencies, rather than a general law – as per the previous chapter. Here exploitation of labour, reduction of wages below their value, cheapening of the elements of constant capital, the function of unemployment, foreign trade, and the increase in share capital are all presented as trends which act to attenuate the declining rate of profit.

The core question Marx returns to in this chapter is how is relative surplus-value produced?

More on this to come…

Capital III. Chapter 13: The law itself

This chapter explores the “inner and necessary connection between two apparently contradictory phenomena” (331)

—> the falling rate of profit, and

—> the accelerated accumulation of capital.

The essence of the argument is that a progressively rising organic composition of the social capital as a whole (its total material volume) occurs at the same time as a relative decline in the rate of profit. The engine of capital’s need to expand is hence located within the tendency for profit rates to decline.

Continue reading ‘Capital III. Chapter 13: The law itself’